It is critical of the early administration of Prime Minister Arthur Balfour, who is represented by a little girl named Clara.A number of other notable British politicians are identified in the book. The Red Queen is Joseph Chamberlain and Crumpty-Bumpty is Henry Campbell-Bannerman. There are additional characters, such as the Lion and the Unicorn, representing Britain and Germany respectively.
The book features 50 drawings after the originals by John Tenniel which were drawn by journalist J. Stafford Ransome, credited as "S.R.".